Rajput - Muslims Relations
(1200 – 1526 A.D.)
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Muslims Relations (1200 – 1526 A.D.)
The period of Delhi Sultanate may partly be described as a period of Rajput
principalities who had not so far submitted to the Muslims or who had thrown
off the yoke of allegiance at the earliest opportunity. A study of the
important Rajput ruling houses viz-a-viz, the Sultans of Delhi will make the
At the time of the Turkish invasion, many of well known “Rajput” clans of the
later times had come to be recognized as belonging to the Kshatriya caste. It
is equally interesting to note that some of the clans had begun to connect
themselves with the Sun Moon, Fire, and Sea etc., in a bid to prove their high
In 1193 A.D., the Muslims captured Delhi, resulting in the defeat and death of
Prithviraja Chauhan and Jayachandra Gahadvala in the battle of Tarain and
Chandwar respectively. Now started a period of conquest on the part of the
Muslim Sultans who, with in a short span of a few years, were able to capture
the greater part off northern India – The Rajput rulers on the other hand,
partly due to their internal rivalries and partly due to their sub-divisions,
considerably weakened their strength and the three contemporaries of Muhammad
of Ghor viz., Prithviraja III, Mularaja II and Bhima II, and the Paramaras
Devapala and Dharavarsha (of Malwa and Abu respectively) individually turned
out to be too weak to withstand the Ghorian attacks.
The fall of the Gurjara – Prathihara empire had brought many other dynasties
to the fore-front, who carved out their own independent or
semi-independent principalities in Rajasthan and elsewhere. The Chauhans, one
of the most prominent clans, established themselves in the region around
Sakambhari (modern Sambhar). The dynasty later extended its area upto
Jangaladesha (present Bikaner and northern Marwar). The early epigraphs of the
dynasty show the Chauhan rulers to have acknowledged the Pratihara over
The Chauhans of Ranthambhor
and Delhi Sultans
After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by
Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja
Chauhan’s son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim
nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja’s rule over Ajmer
was not favoured by Hariraka, probably due to his acting as a
Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by
Prithviraja’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja
was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his
nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and
succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely
intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-insalled on the
throne of Ajmer. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan
(Jaitra – perhapls his general) towards Delhi. The second
attempt too failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was
obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard
pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja
By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious
attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established
himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs
accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the
territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an
The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai
Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima
II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin’s strategy and farsightedness won the
day in battle and the Rajputs forces were comlpletely routed.
After the victoryAibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too
was completely sacked.
The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the
early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their
lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on
numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting
strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their
energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms,
notably, the Chaulukyas, Chandellas and Gahadvallas.
In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful
invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to
his policy of
non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a
superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly
bring any significant
change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.
Iltutmish and his Successors
Ajmer and Nagaur was
possibly the only two principal towns in possession of Iltutmish
at the beginning of his reign. An inscription on the mosque
known as Adhai – Din – ka Jhopra at Ajmer records its
construction at the order of the Sultan. Most of the Rajput
territories occupied earlier had not only asserted their
independence but several Rajput chiefs even carved out new
principalities during the early years of iltutmish’s reign.
The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of
the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on
Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated
towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new
kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its
last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history
of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the
Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small
kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and
fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate.
The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by
his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is
credited with having taken possession of several adjoining
territories (in possession of the Chaulukyas and the Paramaras).
The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought
Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert
capital. According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian
account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being
hard pressed sued for peace. The terms included the offer of one
hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his
fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did
not yield the desired result, probably because of its
Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the
Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete
subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the
Guhilots of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat
and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an
encounter. The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan
Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.
The expansionist activities of the Ranthambore chief probably
compelled Sultan Iltutmish to lead an expedition against him in
1226 A.D. According to Minhaj, the fort fell into the hands of
Sultan Iltutmish after the siege of a few months. The fortress,
was annexed & given to Delhi Sultanate and the death of Sultan
Iltutmish gave a fresh lease of independence to the Chauhans.
Under Vagbhatta, the Chauhans either freed Ranthambore or
pressed the Muslim Garrison too hard, thereby compelling Sultan
Raziah to dispatch her commander sometime before 1238 A.D. to
the rescue of the garrison.
The political history of Mandor is not very clear. Some records
of the Chauhans of Nadol have been found at this place. Earlier
it appears to have been in possession of the Pratiharas. One of
the epigraphs refers to Lakshamana as the founder of the Nadol
line of Chauhans. Mandor thus served as an important outpost of
the Nadol Chauhans during the reign of Vigrahapala, Asarjas,
Sahajapala, Alhandeva, Kelhana and Chamundaraya, after which it
passed into the hands of the Chauhans of Jalore. A year
subsequent to the invasion of Ranthambore, Sultan Iltutmish
marched against the Mandor fortress and captured it. However, it
appears that it was not annexed since it had to be reconquered
by the later Sultans.
The Guhilots had established themselves in Mewar as early as the
last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat
of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries
touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas
could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested.
The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was
Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is
reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and
According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha
warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala)
entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers
are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the
failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the
hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and
Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride
of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its
chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an
unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The
Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned
Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously
refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in
which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief
Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete
devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the
event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt
about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little
doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims
of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat
to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.
The descendants of the Rashtrakuta house of Kannauj are said to
have established themselves around Pali (in Marwar) as a result
of the Muhammadan occupation of their ancestral kingdom and many
of them, including the founder of the line, Rao Sihaji, died
fighting with the Muslims.
While these facts are based on the tradition, subsequent
relations between the Rathors of Marwar and the contemporary
Sultans of Delhi are based on Persian and Rajasthani sources and
are supported by epigraphic evidence.
Possibly some Rathore Chiefs settled in Marwar region even
before the traditional migration of Rao Sihiji and his
lieutenants. But most of the region at least up to the first
decade of the 13th century was in possession of the Chauhans and
the other Rajput tribes like Guhilas. From one of the
inscriptions it is evident that Rao Sihaji succeeded in
establishing his foot-hold around the region of the Pali which
he held till his death in V.S. 1273 i.e. 1215 A.D.
By the close of 12th century Chauhana Kelhana and jayat Simha
etc., held the territories of Pali and Nadol, as feudatories of
Chaulukyas of Gujarat. It seems that Chauhans held Nadol at
least up to V.S. 1288 (1291 A.D). The Chauhan Chiefs Kelhana and
Kirtipala fought against the forces of Muhammad of Ghor, along
with their overlord Chaulukya Bhima II, near Kaydra village in
Similarly, Jayat Simha, son and successor of Chauhana Kalhana,
vacated his possessions of Pali and Nadol and joined hands with
Paramara Dhavarsha of Abu against the invading Muslims forces
under Qutbuddin Aibak, but was defeated and probably slain in
this battle. Again an epigraph found at Manglana (Marwar) speaks
of friendly relations between Sultans Iltutmish and Allahandeval,
son of Govidaraja of the Ranthambhor Chauhan.
To review briefly, leaving aside Ajmer and Nagaur region in
Rajasthan and the region lying between Delhi and Ajmer , there
is no direct
evidence of Sultanate’s hold on other Rajput principalities.
There were also some peaceful Muslims settlements in the region
during this period. The Muslims Sufis, particularly the Chishti
Silsilah had established in Ajmer during this period and
occupied the Marwar region also with its seat at Nagaur.
Khalji Occpation of the
The Khalji rule proved much stronger for the
Rajput principalities than the earlier Turkis Sultans. A new
wave of invasions and conquests began, which ended only when
practically the whole of India had been bought under the sway of
the Delhi kingdom.
Sultan Jalaluddin, the first Khalji ruler, soon after his
accession, marched with a large force towards Ranthambore. He
made an unsuccessful attempt to capture the fort in 1291 A.D.
The fortress was then in the possession of Rana Hammira.
Although the Sultan was successful in some initial conquest over
Thain etc., but the tough resistance offered by Hammira’s forces
compelled the Sultan to return without conquering the fortress.
Sultan Alauddin and
With the accession of Sultan Alauddin Khalji, the political
relations of Delhi Sulanate with Ranthambore entered a new
phase. The Sultan is reported to have decided to reduce the
adjoining Rajput territories at the advice of Qazi Alaul-Mulk.
However, it was the strategic importance of the fort, its
proximity to Delhi and the ambitions nature of the Sultan which
led to an early attack by Alauddin on the Ranthambore fort. The
immediate reason was of course, the shelter given to the new
Mussalmans under the leadership of Muhammad Shah by Hammira.
Sultan Alauddin Khalji dispatched Ulugh Khan towards Ranthambhor
with an army of 10,000, along with Nusrat khan to assist him.
Hammira, himslf being engaged in a Munivrata, sent his general
Bhim Singh and Dharam Singh to oppose the royal forces. In their
earlier encounters with the Muslim forces, the Rajput generals
attained some victories. However, in a battle fought near
“Himduat Pass”, the Rajput forces were defeated and Bhima was
Sultan Alauddin, enraged at the preliminary defeat of Ulugh
Khan, sent letters to all the adjoining territories for sending
reinforcements and once again the two brothers started for
Ranthambore. The terms of treaty like presenting of elephants,
horses, and giving Hammira’s daughter in marriage to Sultan,
were refused. Meanwhile, in of the engagements that ensued,
Nusrat Khan lost is life when a shot from Maghrabi was
discharged from within the fort wall.
Many measures were adopted to reduce the fort but of no avail.
In the meantime, Alauddin is reported to have won over Ratipala,
Hammira’s well-known commander to his side. The situation
further deteriorated due to insufficient quantity of grains in
the fort. As a last resort, a funeral pyre was lit for all the
wives of Hammira to perish in it. Hammira came out of the fort
along with the remaining followers. In a close fight, Hammira
fell along with all his followers including Muhammad Shah in V.S.
After its fall, Ranthambhor was entrusted to Ulugh Khan and the
Sultan himself returned to Delhi. With this ended the
Ranthambhor line of the Chauhans, who had all along successfully
resisted incursions into their kingdom.
Conquest of Chittor
About two years after the fall of Ranthambore the
Sultan decided to reduce Chittor which had gained prominence
during the course of the 13rd century.
In 1299 A.D. a large Khalji army had passed close to Mewar.
Since its object was the conquest of Gujarat, the Khalji
commanders did not make any serious attempt to subjugate Mewar,
the Major onslaught, however, came in 1303 A.D. in which the
Sultan personally led the expedition and pitched his camp
outside the fortress. The siege seems to have negotiated for
peace, but the inmates continued the struggle and finally
Chittor fell on 25th August, 1303. More than 30,000 Rajput
soldiers were put to sword. The place was renamed Khizrabad and
handed over to Prince Khizr Khan.
The story of Sultan Alauddin’s conquest of Chittor would be
incomplete without a reference to the queen Padmini, who is
associated with the events leading to the sack of Chittor., The
traditional story finds mention in Padmawat of Malik Muhammad
Jaysi and is followed by many Muslim as well as Rajput bardic
chronicles. It may, however, be stated that it was Sultan
Alauddin’s lust for power, territorial subjugation, rather than
the beautiful Padmini, as the object behind the Sultans’s
invasion of Chittor. To a strong and cruel ruler like Alauddin,
who cherished desire for world conquest, the independent
existence of Chittor near his kingdom could hardly be tolerated.
A Persian inscription of 1310 A.D., From Chittor suggests Khalji
hold of the territory up to last the year of the epigraphs. This
may refute interesting but unhistorical bardic account of Prince
Khizr Khan’s recall from Chittor and bestowal of his territories
upon Sonigara Chauhans. The bardic story forfeits any credence
with the discovery of a Persian inscription of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq’s period and another inscription of 18th
September 1325 A.D., from Chittor. Malik Asududdin who is
mentioned in the inscription was cousin of Sultan Muhammad
Tughluq and must have held Chittor up to at least the accession
of Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq.
The Bhati principality of Jaisalmer practically remained
independent of Muslim influence during the thirteenth century.
However, epigraphic evidence coupled with the bardic accounts,
suggests a Khaiji invasion of Jaisalmer sometime during the
first decade of the fourteenth century. Nainisi relates the
dispatch of Malik Kamaluddin Gurg and Kafur to reduce Jaisalmer
fort. A Sanskrit Prashasti from Jaisalmer mentions the recapture
of Jaisalmer fort from the Mlechchhas by Cheta Simha. The
mention of the names of Kamalduddin and Malik Kafur in siege
operations lends support to the underlying authority of the
bardic account of Khalji occupation of Jaisalmer.
Apart from Chittor and Ranthambore forts, Alauddin also reduced
the region of Marwar containing two notable fortresses of Jalore
and Siwana held by Songara Chauhan, Kanhad Dev.
Sultan Alauddin sent Kamaluddin Gurg in 1308 to invade Siwana,
which was held by Satal Deva, a feudatoury of the Songara
Chauhan of Jalore. The siege lasted for quite a long period
before the garrison was reduced to submission. Satal Deva made
an unsuccessful attempt to flee towards Jalore but was captured
and put to death. Khusrau puts the date of this event on 10th
November, 1308 A, D.
The last prominent Rajput state Rajasthan reduced by Alauddin
was chauhan Khanhadadeva’s kingdom of Jalore. The first
penetration of the Khalji forces into Jalore was conducted as
early as the third year of Sultans ‘reign. The object, however,
was the invasion of Gujarat. On their return march from Gujarat,
there was a serious uprising in the Muslim army near Jalore over
the issue of distribution of one – fifth of the spoils. Many
rebellious Muslims, when hard pressed, fled to join the
adjoining Rais and Ranas.
Kanhadadeva’s independent existence and hostile attitude
attracted the attention of the Sultan in 1305 when Delhi troops
towards Jalore and besieged the fortress. The
Kanhadadevaprabandha and other Rajput accounts mentions in
detail the defense preparations carried on by the Sonigaras. The
garrison was subjected to starvation and utmost misery. Flames
of Jauhar rose high in which Sonigara queens consigned
themselves. Kanhadadeva came out of the fortress and died
fighting against the Imperial forces in 1311-12 A.D.
The early history of the Hada Chauhans who established
themselves at Bundi during the period of Delhi Sultanate, is
closely associated with Chauhans of Sakambhari, Nadol and Jalore,
from whom they sprang during the middle of 14th century.
According to the traditional accounts, Rao Deva Singh Hada,
second in succession to Rao Hada, captured Bundi tract (later
known Hadoti) from the Minas sometime about V.S. 1398. The
kingdom either remained as an independent principality or under
the partial control of the Guhilot chiefs of Mewar. Sultan
Iltutmish is reported to have sent Malik Aitmur in 1227 –28 A.D.
against the Hindus. A second expedition was led during the reign
of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud. Balban while at his iqta of Nagaur
in 1256, proceeded to invade the territories of Ranthambhor,
Bundi and Chittor.
It is also stated that Rao Deva Singh Hada attended the court of
Sultan Sikandar Lodi but the dates of the Hada chiefs suggest
that he must have been a contemporary of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq.
Like Mewar, the Ranthore state of Marwar too became prominent
during this period. From its foundation by Rao Siha during the
last quarter of the thirteenth century to Rao Chunda, the
history of Marwar was a period of struggle for existence.
Like other Rajput states, the principality of Marwar took full
advantage of the weak Tughluq and the Saiyyid rulers. The
expansionist designs of Rao Chunda, engaged Zafar Khan of
Gujarat who besieged Mandor in 1396, which had been occupied
earlier by the Rathore Chief.
The invasion of Timur gave a further lease to the Rathore Chief,
who now occupied several Muslim stronghold like Nagaur, Khatu,
Didwana, Sambhar, Ajmer and Nadol. The principality of Nagaur,
however, remained a bone of contention between the Rathors and
Muslims and the subsequent events show that it frequently
changed hand between the two. The raids over the adjoining
Muslims and Rajput territories continued when Rana Kumbha and
Ranamal Rathore became rulers in their respective territories
i.e. Mewar and Marwar.
Kyam khan Raso and Nainsi Khyat refer to the rise of the Kyam
Khani Chauhan over the region now called Shekhawati. Probably
the Chauhans of the region, which included modem districts of
Jhunjhunu and Churu, were converted to Islam during the period
of Sultan Feroz Tughluq.
After tracing the geneology of the early Chauhan rulers, the
Raso refers to the rule of Tihunpala and his son Mota Rai at
Dadreva. It was Mota Rai’s son Karam Chand who was converted to
Islam by Sultan Feroz Tughluq and renamed Qayam Khan or Kyam
Mewar Many Rajput principalities taking advantage of the weak
successors of Sultan Alauddin, asserted their independence and
some of the new dynasties also up during the same period.
Mewar asserted her independence during the same period and the
foundation of a second Guhila dynasty was laid by Hammira who
drew out Vanvira Sonigara from the fort of Chittor.
Hammira is credited with fighting successfully against the
Muslim and raiding distant principalities. The Mewar house
emerged from her isolation under able rulers like Lakha, Mokal
and Kumbha, the last of whom extended his territories by
fighting against the Rajputs and neighbouring Muslim
principalities of Nagaur, Malwa and Gujarat. His lifelong
struggle and achievements ranked him as one of the greatest
rulers of medieval Mewar.
Mewar’s glorious period continued under Kumbha and his
successors till Rana Sangram Singh, popularly known as Rana
Sanga. Although Sanga inherited a big and stable kingdom yet he
kept himself engaged in wars with his neighbors and almost
succeeded in establishing his authority over practically the
major part of modern Rajasthan.
The Lodi rulers, on the other hand, were active in extending
their hold over Malwa dependencies. The capture of Chanderi and
Marwar belonging to Gwalior, gave them an advantageous position
and a conflict with Sisodia Rana, who was equally ambitious, was
only a matter of time.
The decaying kingdom of Malwa during the period under review,
gave a favorable chance to Rana, who took up the cause of medina
Rai after defeating both the Sultans to Delhi and Gujarat.
Sanga’s a activities became a permanent danger to the Lodi
By the closing years of the Lodi rule, Rana’s ambitions had so
greatly grown that he sent an envoy to Babar in a bid to form an
alliance with him and synchronize his own attack on Agar with
that of Babar on Delhi. For Babar, it was favorable opportunity
and after capturing Lahore and Dipalpur (1524) he finally
succeeded in defeating and killing Ibrahim Lodi at the
battlefield of Panipat which put an end to the Sultanate rule of
The Babar – Rajput alliance, however, did not materialize. Rana
Sanga who was equally resourceful and war – like chief could
grow very dangerous. He was well known for his claims of
supremacy. Again Babar could master support of the local afghan
Chiefs by waging a war against the Rana and giving it the color
of a Jihad. The so-called alliance thus failed as it was finally
defeated, thus leaving the field open to Babar.
A number of Rajput classes which emerged before
the period of the Sultans of Delhi, ended their political career
even before the Ghorian occupation of Delhi. Some of these were
liquidated by the strong Turkish and the Khalji Sultans. Some of
them, however, taking advantage of the political conditions of
the post- Timur period, re-asserted their independence and
continued to play an important role in the region for a
Politically, the Ghorian invasion of northern India resulted in
a ‘feverish’ military activity amongst the various clan chiefs.
The Delhi sultans’ pressure on the Rajputs chiefs continued in
various degrees during the period under review. A number of
Delhi Sultans, Particularly Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Balban.
Alauddin Khalji etc., succeeded in reducing several Rajput
principalities such as Ajmer, Ranthambhor, Chittor, Jalore,
Jaisalmer and Bayana etc., annexing the important ‘Rajput’
ruling houses like the Chauhans, Guhilas, Bhatis, Rathors and
The period also witnessed the rise of a number of new ruling
houses, particularly in Rajasthan such as Bundi, Marwar,
Ranthambore, arid Bayana etc. In the last mentioned
principality, the Jadon Bhatis were replaced by the Auhadis and
the Khanzada chiefs, who continued to rule over the region in
semi – independent capacity till the end of the Delhi Sultanate.
Some other principalities such as Chittor, which had earlier
been annexed to the Sultanate, re – asserted independence. The
rulers of this house not only succeeded in regaining their lost
territories but also in extending their territories at the cost
of Sultans of Delhi or other local chiefs. The Tughluq, Saiyyid
and the Lodi Sultans failed to curb their growing power. The
Sisodia Rana Sanga succeeded in consolidating his position
further by forming a Rajput confederacy on the one hand and the
Rajput – Mughal alliance on the other, in a bid to claim
supremacy. His activities reduced the Sultanate of Delhi
drastically and left the field open to Babar, who finally
succeeded in defeating and killing both the serious rivals and
thus established his own empire.
The socio – political structure did not undergo a substantial
change during this period. Yet there are several instances when
the Sultan took the ‘Rajputs’ in confidence and left the
conquered territories like Ajmer and Ranthambore in their
possession and also appointed them to high posts. A large number
of Sanskrit inscriptions too took speak highly about the Khilji
and the Tughluq Sultans and appointments of the Rajputs to the
key posts such as wazir.
Some conversion of the important Rajput class such as the Bhatis,
Kyam Khani Chauhans and the Khanzada chiefs of Mewar, are also
known during this period on the basis of literary and epigraphic
records. Probably these ‘secular’ elements were the forerunners
of the ones that came into existence in the Mughal Empire.